Robert H. Davis, Ph.D.
Onderzoek naar de werking van de aloe
vera plant, niet naar een product afgeleid van de plant.
Een zeer belangrijk
man over aloe vera! Dit moet u weten over aloe. Om fouten te voorkomen
hebben wij dit niet vertaald..
Het komt erop neer dat u een aloe product moet hebben met veel
polysaccharides samen met de andere vitamines, mineralen, enzymen en niet enkel
polysaccharides! Volgens H. Davis bevinden zich in de gel veel stoffen en dient
de binnenkant van het blad als container voor de gel om de waardevolle stoffen in
op te slaan!! Vandaar dat enkele bedrijven tegenwoordig via moderne technieken
ook de vele vitamines, mineralen, enz. de zich in het blad bevinden in hun
Hieronder leest u het
orginele verslag van Rober H. Davis, onderzoeker.
By Robert H. Davis, Ph.D.
An examination of the biological
activity of steroids and synthetics revealed that they are both active yet toxic.
In the search for natural substances, such as vitamins and amino acids, that
have biological activity, we serendipitously discovered that Aloe vera had many
biologically active compounds that had anti-inflammatory, wound healing,
analgesic and anti-arthritic activity.
Mannose and glucose are the most significant sugars found in the Aloe vera gel,
and they can be used to assay the activity of Aloe vera. The gel contains
important sterols which can have anti-inflammatory activity. Amino acids such as
tryptophane and phenylaianine reduce inflammation. Studies have shown that
vitamin C & B complex can maintain adrenalectomized animals, and that
minerals such as zinc are very important in wound healing. Anthraquinones have
good anti-inflammatory activity, but their activity is usually obtained by
working through an inflammation pattern. Salicylic acid and aspirin are also
highly biologically active.
Zeer belangrijk )
The rind is the manufacturing plant for carbohydrates, fats, proteins and
vitamins. These Aloe vera constituents are transported throughout the leaf by
the phloem, and other materials are brought up from the roots by way of the
xylem. These two mechanisms aid in transporting the Aloe vera under the
influence of the wind. Mucilage was once thought to take part in this transport
process, but researchers now feel that it acts as a container for the gel fillet
or the storage of Aloe vera.
If one takes the liquid mucilage and freeze dries it, one finds that the
mucilage looks and acts like a bandage. It has occlusive “coverlike”
properties as well as biological activity. The topical anti-inflammatory
activity of mucilage at the 1% dosage is 3.8% in decreasing edema, whereas at
the 5% dose level, it is 33.7%.
A consideration of the sol-gel transformation becomes very evident as an
animal bites the Aloe leaf. The sol which is a colloidal system under the
influence of many factors can be converted into a colloidal gel. If this system
could be transported to the human wound, one would have an excellent topical
wound healing treatment.
In the Aloe leaf synthesis, carbon dioxide and water are converted to an
“active carbon that is used to make carbohydrates, lipids, protein and
vitamins. The Aloe vera cell, visible at a magnification of about 40,000, is
surrounded by a cell wall, has a large nucleus and two cell membranes the
cytoplasm of which manufacturers mucopolysaccharide. The mucopolysaccharide is
stored within the lumen of the cell.
Aloe vera could prevent adjuvant arthritis 72%, and cause a regression of 22 to
26% at a dosage of 150 mg/kg per day. In another experiment, we proved that Aloe
vera was effective in reducing inflammation over a broad spectrum of irritants
in experimental animals. The percent inhibition by Aloe vera ranged from 76.9%
against gelatin to 22.7% against dextran. In evaluating vitamin C’s influence
on localized adjuvant arthritis, we found that it could reduce edema 80%,
inhibit PMN infiltration, and decrease the pain induced by the adjuvant
arthritis. However, there was no influence on the paw temperature. Anthranilic
acid, a metabolite of tryptophane, could inhibit PMN infiltration as was evident
in the peritoneal fluid of adjuvant arthritic rats.
The topical treatment of adjuvant arthritis with combined Aloe, RNA and
vitamin C produced a 25.2% prevention inhibition and 45.1% regression inhibition
at a dosage of 1.5% concentration of each.
Phenylaianine synergized with hydrocortisone acetate in reducing localized
edema. We also obtained a good vehicle response on anti-inflammatory activity
using Aloe vera for hydrocortisone acetate. The combination of Aloe vera and
hydrocortisone was definitely additive in nature. We observed the vehicle effect
of Aloe vera for hydrocortisone acetate on inhibiting the infiltration of
PMN’s as well as the topical application of the steroid.
Aloe vera is also a good vehicle for vitamin C and other important agents.
Tryptophane and phenylalanine had good local anti-inflammatory activity in
inhibiting PMN infiltration. In fact, the inhibition effect approaches that of
the steroid. While phenylalanine was able to inhibit granuioma tissue weight in
adrenalectomized Tanimals synergistically with cortisone, tryptophane did not
synergize with the steroid.
When we placed a cotton pellet under the skin of a rat we found that Aloe
vera was unable to inhibit the growth of granuloma tissue. Aloe vera had no
antifibrosis effect over a dosage range of 50 to 400 mg/kg administered for 12
While Aloe vera had no chronic anti-inflammatory influence, we wondered if it
could inhibit the detrimental effects of the steroid on wound healing. Aloe vera
could inhibit edema in diabetic animals in a dose-response fashion up to 80%
over a dosage range from 10 to 100 mg/kg.
A similar response was obtained in diabetic animals by Aloe vera in
inhibiting the infiltration of PMN’S. Aloe vera definitely can block the
vasoactive substances responsible for inflammation, can constrict small blood
vessels, can block PMN filtration, as well as inhibit production of oxygen
We evaluated the influence of mucilage in Aloe vera on skin penetration of 5%
trypan blue over six hours. We found that Aloe vera at a 10% dose could increase
the trypan blue penetration 24%. However, 10% mucilage was occlusive, that is it
acts as a cover for wounds and blocks the penetration of trypan blue. A
combination of Aloe vera and mucilage revealed that the mucilage could block the
penetrating ability of Aloe vera. Mucilage acts as a cover for wounds but does
not increase the penetrability through the skin.
The effect of Aloe vera on skin fibroblasts was measured by Danhof in 1983 (Danhof
1987). He found that tritated thymidine uptake by skin fibroblasts was
increased in a dose-response fashion by Aloe vera. He also found that the
anthraquinones in the yellow sap killed the fibroblasts. This “killing of
fibroblasts” has potential as an anti-inflammatory assay if Aloe vera was used
to protect against this “killing effect.”
Years ago we felt that wounds should not be covered. However, we found that
dry wounds drop, and prevent the migration of cells and the influence of wound
healing growth factors. With Aloe vera acting as a cover, the wound remains
moist, and there is an excellent migration of epidermal and fibroblast cells. So
there is an increase in covered wound healing over that of uncovered wounds.
Aloe vera increased the wound healing over a dosage range of 1 to 100 mg/kg in a
This was the first study that demonstrated that Aloe vera was effective in
Aloe vera is a modulator. It has an inhibitor system capable of blocking the
immune system observed in the adjuvant arthritic animal, and it can block the
mediators responsible for inflammation.
Aloe vera also has a stimulatory system in which it can increase antibody
production and stimulate wound healing by means of growth factors such as
gibberellin, auxin and mannose phosphate. The isolation of the wound healing and
anti-inflammatory activities using the 50% ethanol extraction of Aloe vera
revealed that the supernatant contained 78% of the anti-inflammatory activity
whereas the precipitate had only 32%. On the other hand, the supernatant had 0%
wound healing activity whereas the precipitate had 160% wound healing activity
in reference to the original Aloe vera. This 160% value is likely due to the
fact that the anti-inflammatory activity is masking some of the wound healing
effect seen in the original Aloe vera.
All of our studies seem to indicate that Aloe vera is both orally and
topically active on wound healing and inflammation even in the diabetic animal.
For example, studies show that Aloe vera can improve wound healing in the
diabetic in a clear cut dose-response fashion over a dosage of 1 to 100 mg/kg.
Gowda demonstrated that mannose phosphate is the significant constituent in
the 50% Aloe vera extract (Gowda 1979). At the same time, Morgan showed
that the mannose phosphate will bind to the insulin like growth factor receptor (Morgan
1987). Willenberg’s study exhibited the anti-inflammatory activity of
mannose phosphate (Willenberg 1989). Its ability to improve wound healing
The effect of mannose phosphate on topical croton-oil-induced inflammation
was dose-related. The plateau of the dose-response curve was seen, however, at
25% inhibition. Glucose-6-phosphate had no effect and served as a control.
Mannose phosphate improved wound healing in a dose-response straight-line
fashion, but not response was seen with glucose-6-phosphate. The mannose
phosphate of Aloe vera activates the insulin like growth factor receptor.
The “Aloe vera molecule” consists of a protein at one end and
mannose-6-phosphate at the other end. The polysaccharide chain contains one
glucose which is covalently linked to the protein with six mannose sugars moving
toward the insulin, like the growth factor receptor of the fibroblast. The
“Aloe vera molecule” can stimulate the fibroblast to increase collagen and
We feel that the protein part of the Aloe vera molecule acts to guide the
polysaccharide chain into the receptor. The mechanism of action of Aloe vera at
the present time seems to inhibit pain and inflammation, but also can, by means
of the growth factors, stimulate the fibroblast to increase wound tensile
We have developed a wound tensile strength assay in which the length of the
curve extends from day three to day ten. A dose-response relationship with Aloe
vera on wound tensile strength was obtained on a two-day treatment as well as on
a four-day treatment basis at doses of 50 to 300 mg/kg per day.
The slopes of both curves were similar. However, we have decided to use the
four-day treatment as the curve on which to best assay Aloe vera on wound
tensile strength. Gibberellin, a plant growth hormone, stimulated wound healing
in a dose-response straight-line fashion over a dosage range from 2 to 100
mg/kg. Auxin was also shown to have good biological activity. Gibberellin could
also block PMN infiltration even in diabetic animals up to 60%.
Aloe vera may have an additive or a synergistic relationship with over 100
compounds to produce biological activity. It is possible that Aloe vera acts as
a kind of conductor which produces music with an orchestra of many biological
active ingredients. It seems presumptuous for us to consider, or even to
postulate that any one substance is responsible for the biological activity seen
in the Aloe vera gel.
We made an air pouch in animals by administering 30 ml of air under the skin. In
seven days we administered 1% carrageenan into the pouch, and two hours later we
administered 10% Aloe vera to determine what effect Aloe vera would have on the
air pouch synovium.
We found that Aloe vera could stimulate the pouch wall weight by increasing
the number of fibroblasts. This agrees with previous findings that the alcohol
precipitate of Aloe had its greatest effect on wound healing by stimulating the
fibroblast. Aloe vera decreased by 60% the mass cell count and wall vascularity.
The effect of Aloe vera on a 1% carrageenan-irritated simulated joint
synovium model proves conclusively that Aloe vera stimulates the fibroblasts, as
seen in the wound healing studies, and inhibits inflammation, as evidenced by
the decrease in vascularity and the reduction in mass cell count.
We have shown that some of the constituents of Aloe vera have biological
activity similar to amino acids, vitamin C and growth factors like gibberellin
and Auxin. Some attention was given to how the Aloe leaf makes and stores the
gel. Mention was also made of the fact that we have seen what we call the
“Aloe vera Cell” in our laboratory at 40,000 magnification. In addition we
have shown that the “Aloe vera molecule” probably does not act alone, but
rather acts in either an additive or synergistic fashion with some of the 100
constituents of the Aloe vera.
Danhof I 1987. Aloe Through the Ages, Volume 1.
Gowda D; Neelisiddaiah B; Anjaneyalo Y 1979. Structural studies of
Polysaccharides from Aloe vera Carbohydrate Research. 72:201.
Morgan, D; Edman JC; Strand-ring DN; Fried VA; Smith MC; Roth RA; Rutter
WJ 1987. Insulin-Like Growth Factor 11 Receptor as a Multifunctional Binding
Protein. Nature 329:301.
Willenburg DO; Parish CR; Cowden WB 1989. Phospho-sugars are Potent
Inhibitors of the Central Nervous System: Inflammation FASEB 3: 1968.
Hier volgt nog een uiteenzetting van
Robert H Davis, waarin hij stelt dat de stoffen in het blad (the aloe leaf ) ook
zeer belangrijk en onmisbaar is. De werkzame stoffen bevinden zich niet alleen
in het blad maar ook in de gel. Het moge inmiddels duidelijk zijn dat een goed
aloe vera product bestaat uit de gewenste stoffen uit zowel de binnenzijde van
het blad als uit de gel. De stoffen in de gel hebben ook de stoffen uit het blad
nodig voor een goede "samenwerking"! Met alleen maar de long chain
polysaccharides in een aloe product heeft men dus nog geen compleet product.
Robert H Davis stelt zelfs dat wanneer we
aloe vera gel, een aloe vera blad en tot aloevera poeder verwerkte aloe
invriezen en ontdooien er geen verschil/verlies optreed in biologische
Het is de samenwerking tussen de
verschillende componenten en de polysaccharides die men vind in de onderste blad
lagen die samen met de overige stoffen in de gel er voor zorgen dat Aloe werkt.
Wel staat vast dat de kortere of door het verwerkingsproces in stukken
afgebroken lange polysaccharides geen of minder biologische aktiviteit hebben.
Een product met weinig of minder dan het maximale aandeel Aloevera Mucaligous
Polysaccharide heeft dus bewezen minder genezings kracht! Met de hedendaagse
technieken kunnen de ongewenste stoffen gemakkelijk verwijderd worden zonder
enige andere gewenste stoffen aan te tasten. Zie ook
Robert H Davis ,
The Aloe leaf has
polysaccharide in the parenchymal cells which is used by the plant for
energy. Mucilage is a different storage form. All polysaccharides are not
the same. When mucilage is placed over a wound, the wound remains moist
and does not drop as does dry wounds. Epidermal and fibroblast growth factors
come from the mucilage and stimulate the fibroblast directly for growth
and repair. The cells as a result migrate within the wound in a proper
manner to increase wound healing. The occlusive nature (cover) of mucilage
increases wound healing from a mechanical and endocrine viewpoint. Mucilage
is also a good anti-inflammatory agent. Some polysaccharides are immune
stimulatory and this immune property improves wound healing probably through
the macrophage. The big polysaccharides appear to be immune stimulatory
whereas the smaller ones have anti-inflammatory activity. When an animal
bites into the Aloe leaf, a hole is made in the leaf so that there is opportunity
for the gel fillet to leak to the outside. However, this does not occur.
The mucilage in combination with the Aloe gel hardens which seals the hole.
Mucilage always hardens and acts as a container for the inner gel fillet.
The transformation which occurs here is a sol-gel transformation of mucilage.
Aloe vera tends to improve the penetration of water whereas mucilage tends
to block the escape of water from a wound. We have been able to transfer
the sol-gel transformation of mucilage and Aloe to an animal wound in which
it improves an incisional wound some 130%. If Aloe and mucilage are placed
between two sticks, it takes some 1200 gms of force to pull the sticks
apart. Wound healing does not just require immune
stimulation by polysaccharides but Aloes healing comes from growth factors,
amino acids, glycoproteins, gibberellin, auxin and minerals such as zinc
as well as polysaccharides. These biologically active agents
synergize to give us the miracle of Aloe vera. Polysaccharide is not a
magic bullet in that these other biological agents make major contributions
to the biological activity of Aloe vera.
In the making of Aloe vera, two major processing procedures are used
by the Aloe industry to give us Aloe vera. The fillet method removes the
rind by a mechanical means and the fillet is washed. The whole leaf method
grinds up the whole leaf and removes the rind by filter. The anthraquinones
are removed by charcoal. The amount of aloin left is less than 5 parts
per million. This amount is not detectable by the deification reflex. When
the Aloe vera is freeze dried for both the fillet and whole leaf methods
and the powders are stored on the shelf for eight years, no difference
was recorded in biological activity. Both methods yield the expected activity
that was recorded in the beginning. Processing of Aloe vera is supposed
to breakdown the polysaccharide polymer (depolymerase enzyme) into fragments
that have little or no activity. This may or may not be true as we have
not seen the evidence. However, if it is true in Aloe vera, to assume that
the smaller polymers resulting from enzyme breakdown of the polysaccharide
do not have biological activity is a presumption. In fact, there are a
number of small ploymers that have great biological activity and are immune
stimulators which are being sold successfully on the open market. The breakdown
of the polysaccharide in Aloe by enzymes must be presented and the resulting
polymers must be evaluated across the board for biological activities using
the original Aloe vera as the control test substance. In all the work that
has been done with the polysaccharide, we have never seen Aloe vera as
the test control to which the polysaccharide is compared. These things
must be done before we claim that the various polysaccharides are the magic
bullets. Are they much more potent than the mother Aloe vera from which
they were extracted? This must be shown by peer review.
Aloe vera contains a large polysaccharide molecule which we have called
the conductor. This molecule leads the many biologically active substances
into a symphony of biological events to heal wounds, reduce inflammation
and eliminate pain. The conductor molecule fits into the fibroblasts, similar
to a lock and a key mechanism so as to set up a cascade of important biological
events, supported by Aloe substances which are part of the orchestra. The
polarity of water is needed for the polysaccharide to communicate with
the active substances to synergistically achieve the maximum desired benefits. We opposed the theory that there is only one active
molecule (a polysaccharide) responsible for all its beneficial effect.
We are convinced that all the biologically active substances in Aloe are
necessary to achieve the maximum-end-benefit. Only Aloe can attach the
entire spectrum of human conditions because specific synergisms are brought
into sharper focus. We have observed that if the polysaccharide from Aloe
is washed extremely well - that is to remove all agents from it, the polysaccharide
has very little biological activity. In fact, what is called polysaccharide
is a polysaccharide with active orchestra members attached to it giving
it biological activity along the lines we have discussed. If the polysaccharide
is prepared in different ways, some activities may be lost and others remain.
The “magic bullet” apparently requires a communication with orchestra agents
to have its best influence.
Aloe vera is a biological vehicle in that it acts as a physical or physiological
carrier for active biological agents but, also adds biological activity
to the test agent no matter what the pharmacologic agent under consideration
is. In effect, it is a physical carriage plus added Aloe vera activity.
This is the orchestra of active substances surrounding the polysaccharide
conductor. Thus the Aloe vera can add to the biological activity of most
test substances. Substances can by synergized and put into Aloe for a biological
vehicle effect. Can the conductor (the polysaccharide) do this most important
biological vehicle effect by itself without the surrounding orchestra agents?
I think not. It needs the rest of the team. If it can, it needs to be
published as data under peer review and not just a “commercial blurb” put
out to stir up controversy. Aloe vera contains water soluble compounds
such as amino acids, enzymes and carbohydrates as well as oil soluble compounds
such as vitamins, sterols and anthraquinones. Possibly, pharmacologic agents
of both solubility’s can be placed in Aloe and carried through the skin
to blood vessels. In an indirect way, the biological agents in Aloe can
help the conductor (the polysaccharide) produce the biological response
at the cell receptor. To suggest that the polysaccharide
works alone is presumptive and it is unwise to call it the magic bullet.
The polysaccharide has biological activity but not of the order obtained
by synergizing with the surrounding biological compounds.
Aloe vera has been called a modulator in that it brings biological systems
into balance. Using the Gowda 50% ethanol extraction procedure on Aloe
vera, we found that 78% of the anti-inflammatory activity was present in
the supernatant. The wound healing activity was present in the precipitate
with the polysaccharide and other precipitated agents. Nevertheless, in
the supernatant most of the anti-inflammatory activity was present in the
supernatant without the presence of the polysaccharide. Some of the wound
healing orchestra compounds were precipitated with the polysaccharide to
help with the wound healing activity. The carrageenan-inflamed synovial
pouch response to Aloe vera confirms our biological results based on the
Gowda experiment. The fibroblast stimulation activity of Aloe vera recorded
in wound healing was clearly observed. The fibroblast response in the air
pouch was not a chronic inflammation but rather a growth-repair response.
Aloe stimulates the fibroblast directly to increase wound tensile strength.
It stimulates glucosamine to form collagen and proteoglycan but zinc and
vitamin C must be present. Mast cells of animals treated with carrageenan
were found in connective tissue and pouch fluid. They were particularly
increased in the inner being of the air pouch as a result of the inflammation.
Aloe vera reduced the inflammation and the pouch was vascularity but at
the same time Aloe vera increased the pouch wall weight. This increase
in air pouch punch biopsy weight by Aloe represents a healing and repair
response. Aloe stimulates directly growth and repair by directly stimulating
fibroblasts. Aloe vera has no anti-fibrosis effect but stimulates the fibroblast
for growth and repair as seen in wound healing. Both of these studies clearly
demonstrate that Aloe vera inhibits inflammation and stimulates wound healing
at the same time which is the miracle of Aloe. We have not seen data to
show that the magic bullet (the polysaccharide) can do this. In fact, this
wonderful dual biological characteristic appears to be exclusive for Aloe vera.
The polysaccharide is an immune stimulator which increases the immune
response to an antigen. La Badie has shown that Aloe vera can act as an
adjuvant to enhance the immune response to an antigen. He found that there
are two functionally and chemically distinct immunomodulatory compounds
in the gel of Aloe vera. One fraction could enhance antibody formation
and another could inhibit antibody formation such that La Badie called
Aloe vera an immune modulator. Davis and La Badie showed that the Aloe
vera can inhibit and stimulate phagocytosis as well as “mop up” oxygen
radicals. Aloe vera acts as an immune stimulator on wound healing and an
immune inhibitor on inflammation. Aloe vera can prevent and regress the
autoimmune condition of adjuvant inducted arthritis. This condition involves
both antibody and cellular immunity. Aloe vera can inhibit the infiltration
of polymorphonuclear leukocytes into a site of irritiation. This represents
a block on leukotrienes. Under-nourished individuals have impaired immune
responses which may be co-factors in the immunodeficient virus infection.
This makes people more susceptible to viral infection. The many nutritional
components in Aloe vera may help the infected individual fight off a disease
as a co-factor as well as play a role in regulating the immune system (cell
mediated immunity). No single component such as the polysaccharide can
do the complete job. A treatment of many compounds as seen in Aloe vera
would seem to be more beneficial for a multi-factorial syndrome. The global
AIDS problem may be out of control because there is no treatment. If the
polysaccharide can contribute in this area, possibly, Aloe vera can even
make a better contribution because it is multifaceted. Aloe vera has 200
biologically active agents as well as polysaccharide to act as a biological
vehicle and a treatment possibility.
Yagi presented data on the isolation of a glycoprotein (Aloe glycoprotein)
which has bradykinin-degrading activity and a proteolytic activity against
bradykinin. The Aloe glycoprotein has hemagglutinating and cytoagglutinating
activity. It has mitogenic activity for lymphocytes. This glycoprotein
is called Aloctin A. This glycoprotein has strong anti-tumor activity whose
activity varies with the dose at microgram amounts. Aloctin A is non toxic
and at very small doses causes complete regression of tumors. Like the
polysaccharide, the glycoportein appears to have an anti-tumor effect based
on cell division and immune system response. Thus, the polysaccharide is
not the only magic bullet, glycoprotein is another one. In
fact, Aloe vera has many magic bullets such as gibberellin, auxin, sterols
and chromones to mention a few. All of these compounds are found
around the polysaccharide in the orchestra.
The penetration of topical agents through the skin may be influenced
by the drug, the vehicle and the skin. Little attention has been given
to the influence of Aloe vera and mucilage on the penetration through the
skin. The stratum corneum acts as a barrier to drug penetration through
the skin but also acts as a reservoir for molecules when a drug is applied
on the skin. When hydrocortisone is applied to the skin, 99% fails to penetrate
the skin stratum corneum and is wasted. Placing hydrocortisone in Aloe
vera enhances the penetration and adds to the biological activity of hydrocortisone.
Aloe vera increases the penetration of skin by water hydration, occlusiveness
and by increasing compound solubil-ity. Aloe vera increases the penetration
through the skin whereas the polysaccharide mucilage acts as an occlusive
seal forming a firm cover to keep moisture in the skin. Aloe can aid water
soluble and insoluble compounds as a biological carrier so that it can
be a good carrier for all kinds of drugs as well as contributing Aloe activity
to the drug it carries. Can Aloe polysaccharides alone aid in skin penetration
and add its biological activity to an agent it carries? We think it can
not by itself. It needs the orchestra environment of biologically active
compounds to complete the task. The properties of a large polysaccharide
are completely different from those of a small polysaccharide. What is
said of the smaller one can not be attributed to the larger one. In any
event, we need to see the data to prove that the magic bullet - the polysaccharaide
- can act in a fashion similar to Aloe vera. The FDA must see the data
recorded in “commercial blurbs” backing up all the claims made by people
who say “If you don’t have our polysaccharide, you don’t have active Aloe
vera.” This is not true based on scientific evidence.
These claims are false and are made by people motivated by money and not
Gibberellin is a growth factor found in Aloe plants that has anti-inflammatory
and wound healing activity in laboratory animals. It does this in normal
and diabetic animals. Gibberellin’s wound healing activity is related to
its ability to stimulate protein synthesis as well as the RNA-DNA cellular
systems. It stimulates wound healing (open and incisional wounds) in a
dose-response manner. Aloe vera and gibberellin can stimulate fibroblasts
directly to form collagen and proteoglycans for wound healing. We also
feel that Aloe vera (or gibberellin) can stimulate or modulate the macrophage
to produce the traditional growth factors which stimulate fibroblasts.
It appears that Aloe vera or gibberellin can do the same thing as proposed
by the polysaccharide. Because of the contribution of other agents, they
probably do a better job on open and incisional wounds. However, studies
need to be designed to show this. Aloe vera and gibberellin are anti-inflammatory
even in the diabetic. They improve wound healing, reduce edema and
pain. Aloe vera has an additive “vehicle effect” with gibberellin on wound
tensile strength. Gibberellin blocks hydrocortisone’s inhibition on wound
healing similar to Aloe vera.
Hydrocortisone inhibits wound healing by blocking the formation of connective
tissue. This increases the spread of infection. Aloe vera and gibberellin
counteracts these detrimental effects of steriods. Gibberellin and Aloe
vera block the steriod inhibition on wound tensile strength. Aloe vera
contains three sterols that have good anti-inflammatory activity. They
exhibit anti-inflammation in a dose-response fashion and may be a major
contributor to the anti-inflammation in Aloe. Aloe vera blocks a wide variety
of irritants that act by different biochemical pathways. However, it has
no chronic anti-inflammatory activity because it stimulates the fibroblast
for wound healing. However, we wonder if it aids the hydrocortisone’s chronic
anti-inflammatory activity since Aloe vera prevents and regresses adjuvant
induced arthritis. Aloe vera acts as a biological vehicle for aspirin
and it synergizes with its analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity.
Summarizing the main effects of Aloe vera, we must conclude that gibberellin,
sterols, chromones, aspirin like compounds and auxins are magic bullets
in Aloe vera. Mucilage improves wound healing, glycoprotein is anabolic
and produces both anti-cancer effects and immune system responses that
are anti-tumor. Both of these must be considered magic bullets as well
as the polysaccharide found in the parenchyma cells of the Aloe leaf. Is
it wise to precipitate the polysaccharide with alcohol and throw out all
these wonderful biological agents? Is it wise to say that only the polysaccharide
is worthwhile when you are aware of this data? I think not. It is exceptable
to isolate the various compounds and evaluate them by themselves. However,
do not run down Aloe vera from which they came. The data presented here
refutes the concept that “If Aloe vera doesn’t have a certain polysaccharide,
its not Aloe vera.” It rejects the concept that only the polysaccharide
is active and important in Aloe vera.